# “Gravity” app for Misift Flash

After a long trip to CA, I am finally back at working on fun stuff.  First up is an app for the Misfit Flash that lights up the lowest LED on the board.  Source is here, but it is a bit hapazard and documentation is somewhat scarce.  So if you are going to build it make sure you have a few minutes.

The how:

This technique assumes that the board is not accelerating at much more than 1g in any direction- in other words, gravity has to be the dominant force.  It would not work very well if you were in a car speeding up, but it would work ok you were in a car with a constant velocity.

To determine which way is down, I read the accelerometer and look at the X and Y components.  The Z does not have very much information for me, because tilting the board to the same angle in any direction will give you pretty much the same Z value.  The Z value would be good for something like a bubble level, but it is not useful here.  Another way to think about it is that a gravity vector straight down is being decomposed into ijk vectors that are fixed to the reference frame of the board.  We want to know in the ij plane which way is most “in line” with the gravity vector.  The X and Y axes of the accelerometer are collinear with the i and j unit vectors in this case.

The X and Y components form a vector that points in some direction on the face of the board (orange vector above).   Each LED lies along an imaginary circle with a radius of 64 units, although I show it as a unit circle above.  Each of these direction vectors is dotted with the XY vector, which gives a “score” of how much the XY vector is pointing in the direction of the LED.  The vector with the largest score has its LED illuminated.

Other Approaches and improvements:

There are simpler ways to do this with non-integer math and conditionals, but floating point math is apparently “expensive” on a M0.  The easy way to do it with floats would be to make a table of inverse tangents, and find the ratio between the X and Y components.  Then it would be simple to just look up which range you were within- for example the 2 o’clock LED here is between .25 and .66.  There would have to be special provisions if X were ever 0 to avoid a division by 0 error, but that would be pretty simple.

An easier optimization would be to get “hints” from the sign of the XY vector, if optimizing for speed.  right now, each 12 dot product operations and 12 conditionals are evaluated each time.  This could probably be cut down to 4 dot products and 6 conditionals if by looking at the quadrant of to do the dot products in first, depending on the value of the XY vector.  Given that the processor is only doing one thing, it does not seem like it is useful to implement.

# Commandeering the Misfit Flash Board

The flash acting as a thermometer.  Also pictured, FTDI friend and discovery board aka stlink programmer

In my last post about the Flash, I showed all the LEDs lighting up, but I really did not have the board mapped out or the toolchain set up yet.  I just went on mbed, and turned all of the outputs on and off, a condition pretty much guaranteed to blink some LEDs on the board.

I wanted to do something a little more involved with this board, so I took the time to reverse engineer the connections and figure out to talk to the sensors and I/O elements on the board. I have figured out the LEDs, the button, the internal temperature sensors, and the accelerometer.

LEDs

This one was tedious, but not hard to figure out.  I knew all the LEDs would turn on, and that it was not likely to hurt anything if I had all the pins high.  All I had to do here was write a program that turned one pin on high at a time, until I had a map of pins to LEDs.  I was surprised to find out that the NRF was actually not sourcing the current to the LEDs- meaning that when the pin is low, the LED is on.

For about .5 seconds, the battery can source ~33mA

I am not 100% sure why they did this, but my theory is that they found out that you can sink slightly more than the advertised current into the chip, and that the driving output is pretty limited.  According to the datasheet for the energizer CR3032, it looks like it can provide 33mA for a few seconds before some serious voltage drooping sets in.  It also seems like trying to output more current might drop the output voltage more, while low side drive might guarantee a lower voltage (and therefore a bigger voltage drop, and more current across the LED).

The current the original firmware drew when doing an LED animation

This is a recording of the current drawn from a 3v power source by the device using the original firmware, with the LEDs on.  You can see that they were very careful to use a lot of PWM (about 50% duty cycle) to keep the average current low, but the instantaneous current got as high as 30mA!

Once I figured out what went where, I made a nice little animation that turns on all the LEDS starting at 12 o’clock, and added them to a custom flashboard.h header so it would be easy to reference and compile everything.  I did this a few too many times and ended up killing my battery!  But I also found out ALL the LEDs can be on.

Button

What a nice little dome switch

The button was also tedious, and I ended up not figuring it out on the first try.  My initial approach was to run my clock animation any time the button was pressed, pulling the button high, and waiting for it to go low.  Unfortunately, this did not work quite right, because the button was already pulled high by an external pullup.  This made it pretty tricky to find the button by looking for a response when the button was pressed.  Eventually I just looked for connections on the board, and then tested a few likely candidates for voltage drops when the button was pressed.  I also found what looks like a voltage divider, which may be used for measuring battery voltage (but I am not sure yet).

Temperature

It is toasty in there!

The NRF51288 has an internal temperature sensor, which I decided would be fun to print out over the UART.  It seems ballpark reasonable, as it settled on about 42 or 43 C for my body temperate- but it may be generating a bit of heat on its own. It is a cool “free” addition to the board.

Accelerometer

CS: 2 MISO: 5 MOSI: 4 CLK: 5

After a bit of poking at registers, I wrote a little SPI routine to talk to the accelerometer on board.  After I made sure I could read the WHO_AM_I register, it was easy to get the rest of it working.  Figuring out the pins for this was super easy, because they are labeled on the board- I just looked at where they went and I was right on the first try!  I even got CPOL and CPHA right.

Things I might make

Well, now that I have all this stuff working, its time to make this into something else and call it a day.  There are a few ideas I thought would be worth a try:

1. Digital plumb bob- the bottom most LED would always light up as the device was rotated
2. Digital marble- simulate a marble or a drop of water that “settles” at the lowest point
3. Vibration logger- how often are doors opened?  when does the HVAC run? when are toilets flushed?
4. Height sensor- detect free fall, and count how long before hitting the ground

# The Kossel Science Project

NB: at the time of posting this, the kit has been changed a little bit, but I expect the quality and service are about the same.

Unboxing

The general unboxing experience was pretty awesome.  It is hard not to be excited when you get something like a 3d printer in the mail.  Smaller items were sealed in little bubble mailers with labels on them, while larger items like the rails and the extrusion were taped together with “kaptan tape”.  One extremely annoying and totally frustrating thing was that the screws were all mixed together.  It seems like it would have been easy to separate out the ~10 types of screws into different bags, and in fact, it seems like folgertech took all the separate parts and then mixed them together, making it worse for the person who has to assemble it.  Boo.

Fortunately, I had enough film canisters and petri dishes laying around to sort each fastener, bearing, and washer into a separate bin.  Hooray!

A note on the general quality of the kit seems appropriate here.  Most of the non-printed parts are of acceptable quality.  By this I mean that there were 1-2 defective screws, and after lubrication and cleaning, the linear bearings seemed ok.  Some of the parts were of totally unacceptable quality and will absolutely need to be replaced by the user.  I have a complete list later on of things that I had to buy, but the worst offenders of quality were:

-The hot end platform was completely useless, burned, and blobby.  They clearly did not use support and the cantilevered parts suffered because of it

-The end effector was similarly scorched.  It looks like a z axis/bed leveling problem

-Despite the massive 14 AWG (.064″) cables for running the high current DC to the heated bed, the AC power cord is maybe 30 AWG (.010″) stranded, and it heats up noticeably when turning on the printer.  I worried that when I ziptied it to the frame, I would pinch off the flow of electrons.  It is also not IEC color coded, which means right now, it is possible that my machine is grounded on the wrong side of the fuse.

Assembly:

Assembly was not difficult, aside from the poor print quality, shoddy instructions and missing pieces.

According to the kossel BOM, you need about 100 m8x3mm screws to complete the printer.  I was shipped 36.  After complaining, I was shipped another 36.  While I was impressed that they shipped me the screws, I was not impressed by the fact that I was still 28 screws short of the full 100.  Fortunately I had already ordered backup screws from McMaster Carr.  This took about four days, since it was over a weekend.  I could have easily built the printer over that time, but I was \$4 short in screws.

The print quality of the components is also quite low.  The infill is decent, but it seems like their extruder had some difficulty keeping up.  As a result, the prints are extremely vulnerable to de-laminating.  This complication is compounded by the prints not being properly sized to fit the extrusion through them- this means that as you push in the extrusion, it is trying to tear apart the print.  Fortunately, I got mine together with only slight damage, which should allow me to print new brackets at a later date.

Print quality issues also caused some problems in holding nuts, which screws were supposed to thread into.  Coincidentally, all of the holes that should have been clearance holes actually being interference fits for the screws, so I could screw them in with no nuts.  A few of the parts (the end effector parts) I had to re print, as the parts I received were unusable.

Now that we have covered the problems with low quality and missing parts, we can talk about the instructions, which for the most part are usable.  They are not well lit, high quality, or in focus, but they are usable.  What was totally unusable was that the instructions conflict and were apparently not shot on the same model of machine.  There are extra stepper drivers, wires, and connectors that are not wired in the printer, but do show up in the pictures.  To add to that, the limit switches are shown wired in such a way that when the switch is not closed, it shorts 12V to what seems to be the arduino ground, which is not the greatest thing to do for many reasons.  As a note, this makes the arudino drop off the USB, so if you see that check your endstops.

Troubleshooting/Small Electrical Fires:

Of course, none of these problems prevented me from eventually building and testing the printer.  And then the real fun began! If I started a print with these lines:

M190 S105 ; wait for bed temperature to be reached
M104 S235 ; set temperature

This would result in the bed temp going up to 105, and then the hot end temp would go up to about 100, then crash.  Slowly, the bed temp would go down after that, until they were both at 25C (my room temperature).  It seemed like an electrical problem, so I checked the power out of the power supply, which was good.  Next, I checked the temperature of the board.  Surprisingly, they were very very hot.  At this point, the MSTBA connector started to make smells, smoke and melt, which led to me unplugging the printer.

The problem was that the polyfuses had blown, and some combination of the polyfuses heating, the FETs heating, and living under the heated bed had caused the plastic of the connector to heat up and short the 30A 12V supply.  In retrospect, it was probably that the board was mounted with metal screws (as per the instructions).  The RAMPS wiki page says “DON’T secure Arduino/RAMPS with conductive screws through both mounting holes. The screw may cut into the positive trace creating a HIGH current short.”.   Either way, this was not good, and totally the fault of the instructions that folgertech provided.  Using non-conductive nylon fasteners might be one way to fix this.

I disconnected all the electronics and moved the controller out from what was essentially a 110C oven.  I oriented the heat sinks and polyfuses facing up (as they should be) in open air, instead of in an oven.  With the connectors extended, the terminal block plug connector removed and with wires soldered in place, I powered the printer on and much to my surprise…it printed!

Print quality:

Considering that the printer is held together with zip ties and given the generally low quality feel that I had as I put it together, my expectations for this printer were low.  However, I have to say that it has performed admirably so far.  It is extremely quick, and with a 1″ calibration cube (printed in the center) I measured that it was within about .005″ (that’s 120 microns for you metric people).  This is without bed leveling,  or really properly tensioned belts or anything, so I am pretty pleased.

NB: after further prints this turned out to be a fluke, the Z of this print was pretty far off.

Summary:

Count this as more of a box of parts, some of which you may be able to put into a usable printer.  The cost of the kit is about \$350, but expect to need to spend another \$50-100 on parts that you didn’t expect to need, but that you will need (and that will slow down your build).

# Putting GoPros in Milling Machines

Too far away from the light, and the action!

…Because why not?  A lot of people have done it, but what I really wanted was a way to clamp my gopro to the table of the machine- that way I could watch the part form up close, or even choose my angle.  I decided the way to do this was to use the T nuts from the hold down sets we have in the shop. A T nut and a flange nut hold a 1/2″-13 stud to the bed, and then the gopro mount threads onto the top of the stud.

Since it was easier to just throw it on the bridgeport and make it the “right shape”, I decided to avoid the CNC.  After the fact, I modeled it in onshape, and made a drawing to try out their drawing tool.  While I like their modeling tool, the drawing tool seems like it could use some work- it was really slow for some unknown reason, and I really miss the smart dimension tool from solidworks.

Here is the finished mount on the table of the bridgeport.  I hope I get to try it out sometime soon!  Maybe it will capture some cool footage, or maybe it will get thrown back in the scrap bin.  Who knows?

Here is the drawing in case anyone wants to make one.

# Gauging Kossel Z Accuracy

The gauge, with its value lasered on

Once I had conductive probing on my Kossel, I thought it would make sense to take stock of the Z accuracy of the machine.  To do this, I wanted to compare two Z heights, but I did not want to measure off of the bed, in case it was scratched or locally not very flat.  So I turned a small piece of scrap aluminum to two diameters, and two lengths.  The top flat is 3.98 mm above the other flat, as measured with a rather cheap micrometer

To test the accuracy of Z height, which should be the “easiest” thing for a kossel to exceed at, I put the gauge under the head at x0 y0 and probed it in Z with my M430 command, which lets me know if the head is touching a grounded part of the machine or not.  Since the conductive gauge is on a conductive build plate, I can tell if I am touching it or not.

After doing a few tests, it seemed like the .01 mm movement had too much hysteresis to be trusted, meaning that my resolution was .1 mm (.0039″).  After several trials, the average value difference between contact on the top and bottom was 4.03 mm, which is pretty dead on- which impressed me.

# Kossel Adjustable Bed + Conductive Probing

The bed probing in action!

My Kossel, which I have jokingly named “Screw Loose”, left a lot to be desired when I built it.  One of the major problems I had was print adhesion- or lack thereof.  Even with a heated build plate and kapton, the printer had trouble with peeling and plain not sticking to the bed. I learned what the problem was with a simple test- I went to z0 x0 y0 and moved the head around.  On one side of the bed, the head touched the plate.  On the other side, it moved away from the plate.

After some searching (circa late 2015), I discovered that there were no RAMPS compatible firmwares that had bed tilt compensation for the Kossel, even though .  I am not sure why,  and I think since then this has been rectified in a fork of the marlin firmware.

Instead of trying to have the printer compensate based on readings, I decided to take the mechanical approach of actually making the bed flat to the plane of motion of the head.  The first thing that had to be changed was how the bed was mounted to the frame of the printer- as it was designed, it just bolted straight on with no adjustment, which was a bad decision because it almost guarantees that the build surface will be at an angle.

Bed adjuster, with thumb screws above and below the bed.

Making the bed adjustable was actually pretty easy.  I put a long, steel 4-40 screw through the original mounting points, and fixed it to the frame with a nut, creating a “stud”.  Using what I had on hand, I made some thumbscrews by laser cutting acrylic and putting it around hex nuts.  This let me easily adjust the bed up and down at the three points it attaches to the frame.

The next step was to set up conductive probing.  I know people have gotten good results with the servo+microswitch, but I after using a renishaw probing system I just cant deal with how floppy it looks, nevermind the extra wire routing.  Conductive probing is actually really easy- I made the mistake of thinking I would have to write some software and started writing my own M code commands, but its actually a hardware solution.

I have no desire to add more wires to this rat nest.

The way bed probing is normally done on the kossel is with a switch mounted on a servo, which is mounted to the print head.  This gets wired to an endstop header on the RAMPS board.  Each endstop has three pins- ground, 5v, and signal.  In order to set up conductive bed leveling, all I had to do was run a wire from the bed to ground, and add a pull up to D18, the pin connected to the “signal” of the endstop header I used.  The code in question is here:

```
float z_probe() {
feedrate = homing_feedrate[X_AXIS];
prepare_move_raw();
st_synchronize();

enable_endstops(true);                      //Turn endstops ON!
float start_z = current_position[Z_AXIS];
long start_steps = st_get_position(Z_AXIS);

feedrate = homing_feedrate[Z_AXIS]/7;   //Make the speed slow
destination[Z_AXIS] = -20;              //plan to crash into the bed on purpose
prepare_move_raw();
st_synchronize();                       //Actually execute crash move
endstops_hit_on_purpose();              //We crashed into the bed on purpose
```

Before trying this, it is critical to make sure that the bed and head are clean, and that when they touch you actually trigger the endstop.  If the endstop is not triggered, the printer will do its best to drive the print head through the bed, which will leave a dent- I know this from experience.  It’s always a good idea to implement a command like my M430 command in marlin_main.cpp to make sure it is working before running g29 (bed probing).

```    case 430: //M430
SERIAL_PROTOCOLPGM("M430: EC PROBE STATUS");
SERIAL_PROTOCOLLN("");
break;
```

This snippet lets you know that everything is working by manually moving the head into contact with the bed, and checking to see if D18 changes from high to low.  It it does not change, the the endstop is not being detected and the printer will try to destroy itself- which is bad.

Once everything is working, G29 should probe the bed, and the head should gently “kiss” the bed in a few locations and spit out a map like this:

21:40:47.704 : 0.000 0.000 -0.400 -0.438 -0.400 0.000 0.000
21:40:53.881 : 0.000 -0.337 -0.400 -0.375 -0.387 -0.438 0.000
21:41:02.489 : -0.375 -0.475 -0.400 -0.375 -0.388 -0.400 -0.413
21:41:11.061 : -0.350 -0.413 -0.338 -0.363 -0.400 -0.388 -0.375
21:41:19.624 : -0.312 -0.475 -0.400 -0.388 -0.388 -0.488 -0.388
21:41:25.760 : 0.000 -0.438 -0.375 -0.350 -0.400 -0.313 0.000
21:41:29.438 : 0.000 0.000 -0.350 -0.363 -0.313 0.000 0.000

After some adjusting, it should be possible to get all the numbers really close- as you can see in this printout.  The diameter of the “grid” for these points was ~100mm, and all the points are within about .13 mm, or about .005″, which is pretty good.  NB that there are zeroes in all the corners- with stock firmware, you will have bogus numbers there.  It is easy to change that to setting them to zero, as seen here (note to self: use git in future):

```// For unprobed positions just set to zero
if (abs(y) >= 3) {
bed_level[1][y+3] = 0;
bed_level[5][y+3] = 0;
}
if (abs(y) >=2) {
bed_level[0][y+3] = 0;
bed_level[6][y+3] = 0;
}
```

After this, I easily made some decent prints, since it all the layers were even, and the print head never crashed into the plastic!  I highly recommend leveling the bed of your kossel if you have one.

# Re-Flashing the Misfit Flash

After a thorough electrical and mechanical investigation of the Flash device, I decided I would do a little more poking around to see if I could download the firmware from the device. In the end I was not successful (although there is hope), but I did manage to put my own firmware on the device quite easily.

I took a multimeter to the tag-connect header to see which pins when where.  It doesen’t look like the normal SWD or JTAG 10 pin connector, but I did find power, ground, SWDIO/RST, and SWDCLK.  For reference, on the drawing above, the single hole of the tag connect is at the top.

I connected a few wires to the programming pins, and then wired those pins to an STLink programmer from one of the STM discovery boards.  Using OpenOCD, I first tried to download the firmware from the chip with dump image- but it came back all zeros (not shown)!  This is because the NRF51822 has a read-protection feature to prevent people from gaining access to your code.  This is configured through the second register in the UICR, RBPCONF.  The UICR starts at 0x10001000, so I started there and read a few registers.  RBPCONF was 0xffff0000, which means that all of the program memory is protected.

The values in the UICR can only be cleared if the entire program memory is erased, so that’s exactly what I did- nrf51 mass_erase.  With the memory wiped, reading the RBPCONF resulted in 0xFFFFFFFF, the default value of read back protection for code region 0 and all code regions being disabled.

Once it was erased, I checked that I could write to the chip by putting a simple blinking LED program on the chip.  All the program does is sleep and toggle all of the IO pins, but it was enough to show me that everthing was working.  Later on, I can use this program to test what pin goes to what LED, if I want to make a cool blinky display or something.

After talking to my coworker about this, I learned that there is a way to dump the firmware even with the memory protection on.  Since I was already on the prowl to find a non-destroyed flash to reprogram as a cool display, I might go ahead and buy one and see if I can get the firmware out of it after all.